An interesting book about how two American immigrants in Russia developed the FCS for Kilo-class submarines. Unfortunately, only the abstract is translated in English:
“Whale Jump” is an extremely complex emergency surfacing
manoeuvre, which can save a submarine in distress, provided that its
captain and crew have courage, experience and determination. An
action taken in extreme circumstances by a talented and brave leader
and his team to save the day can be called a “Whale Jump”.
“Whale Jump” is the name of this book, about the creation of the
command system of Soviet submarine Project 877 (Kilo class) also
known as “Varshavyanka”.
“Whale Jump” is a historical account of how the submarine’s
combat and navigation system “Usel” (Russian for “The Knot”) came
“Varshavyanka” and “Usel” are still deployed in the 2st century by
the navies of Russia, India, China, Iran, Algeria and other countries.
Their creation 40 years ago has tied an incredible «destiny knot»
of many peoples’ lives – a Leningrad team of young and enthusiastic
developers and their forever to be loved teachers and leaders: Philip
Staros and Josef Berg, talented American engineers of amazing and
tragic fates. More than once they had to execute a “Whale Jump”, was
luck always with them?
Intelligence service conflicts, daring scientific endeavors, collaboration
with the great creators of submarines, aircraft and spacecraft, the
emergence, development and downfall of Soviet microelectronics, all
formed the destiny knot described in this book.
The author, Mark Galperin, was born in Leningrad and educated at
LITMO University. He joined the design bureau headed by Philip Staros
as a student and worked under his guidance for 14 years. Mark was the
first deputy to Philip Staros in the “Usel” design and was awarded the
State Award of the USSR for his part in the Varshavyanka project. He
now resides in Australia.
TsKB Rubin is testing an AIP generator for submarines, RIAN reported in Sep 13 according to Rubin's Gen Director Andrey Dyachkov. He criticized the German hydrogen elements for flammability of their storage. The currently developed Russian AIP is built on the same electro-chemical generation principle, as hydrogen elements, but uses different less flammable reagents. The chemical ingredients used in the new AIP are not disclosed however. Like foreign analogs the last Russian AIP is built in plug-in module. Dyachkov also said Rubin is working in parallel to improve the lithium-ion batteries for subs. Currently the installation of lithium-ion batteries allows to make underwater time longer on 40%, while it's only 35-40% of the theoretically limits of this technology.
(to note: 4 years ago on BRF discussions I have pointed out about signs of efforts for developing much more powerful lithium-ion batteries for submarines instead of less powerful lead or silver-zinc accumulators or unsafe and sub-powerful hydrogen elements.)
New information about Russian prospective tank engine was published recently in the blog of a known blogger from UVZ . The engine A-85-3 (another name 12N360 ) was over successfully testes on T-95 in 2010 including high altitude and non-standard oils. It has nominal power of 1500 hp with option for uprating up to 2200 hp or derating to 1200-1350 hp. The automatics ensure defense against overheat. Transmission characteristics are not disclosed yet. The engine is a 4-stroke X-shaped opposite diesel belongs to 2V serial, which includes also the engines for Sprut 125-mm light tank and BMD-3. It is developed by ChTZ, which is now a part of UVZ concern.
- Power 1500 hp
- torque backup - 25%
- Fuel consumption - 217,9 g/kW*h (160 g/hp*h, 155 g/hp*h on derated ) - (MTU 883-1500 has only 170 g/hp*h)
- Rate - 2000 R/min
- Mass - 1550 kg
- 1 hp/kg
- 1088 hp/m3 (MTU 883-1500 has only 949 hp/m3)
- 1845x900x830 (MTU 883-1500 has 1700x964x965)
For comparison the spec of V-93 (V-92S2F), V-92S2 tank diesels:
Lifespan - 1000, 1200 h
Russian journal 'Popular mechanics' published an article about T-95 tank with rather realistic 3D models based on previously leaked low resolution photos. The original issue of the journal can be downloaded here.
This is the export-oriented modernized T-90S on the pictures. New modernization of T-90 named T-90AM for domestic army is slightly different. It has new 2A82 125 mm MG (2A46M-5 for export version) with improved autoloader allowing long rods using, with 22 ready to use rounds (40 rounds all), 70% better barrel lifspan. -10 - 45 grad vertical and 316 grad horizontal angle
Turret FCS complex called 'Kalina' has panoramic commander view PK PAN with IR camera, and gunner view PNM Sosna-U. Remote controlled 7.62 turret UDP T05BV-1, GLONASS+inertial navigation, improved radio (two independent stations) and tactical awareness system.
V-93 1130 hp engine giving 23 hp\t (for 49 t tank), steering wheel & automatic gear, chassis sensory control system.
The ERA is Relict for improved performance against tandem rounds, maximal distance of penetration for APFSDS rods М829А2 is - 1km, М829А3 – 1,2km (NII Stali). +Shtora-2 modernized soft kill APS for incoming ATGMs. The APU is alternatively of two types: 5 kWt DGU5-P27.5V-VM1, or 7 kWt DGU7-P27.5V-VM1. Track pressure - 0.98 kg/cm2.The tank was promised early to be shown in N-Tagil show in 8-12 Sep.